This policy paper summarises the main findings from research conducted under CASCADES on the Central Sahel, covering Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. This research focused on key climate related challenges in the region, notably with regards to livelihoods, food security, human mobility and human security, including communal conflicts and violent extremism. The main conclusion is that climate change is and will be an important factor for the future of the Central Sahel. Both its current and future impacts, however, are intrinsically linked to socio-economic and political factors that must be emphasised when addressing climate-related challenges in the region.