Extremism and crime are worsened by climate change, leading up to risks with regard to peace and security in the Sahel. A disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) program has been slow in implementation, due to “economic and climate pressures in northern Mali” which has been driving some local groups to illicit trafficking. “Intercommunity conflict” has worsened, not least because the populations have begun to develop grievances towards the authorities.

Thus, government needs to provide effective responses as to climate change and peacebuilding. Implicitly, MINUSMA in Mali has been developing approaches to the emerging issues, and has done so conflict-sensitively, although this is not a priority for the mission, for a lack of capacity. The UN could step in to tackle climate issues, but MINUSMA could provide training regarding analysis of climate-related risks and viable responses to alleviate these, thus ensuring the appreciation of the mission among the populations. The UN, on its part, should implement “long-term and flexible funding streams.”