Populations across the five countries are growing rapidly and expected to rise to more than 200 million by 2050. Up to 41 million young people in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and the Niger alone are considered at risk of radicalization or migration, given that the region is both the departure point for migrants and a key corridor of different migration routes. Without significant action to improve access to education, vocational training and quality employment, the Sahel is at risk of becoming a hub of mass migration and for recruitment and training of radical groups. The economic transformation of rural areas and the creation of jobs for millions of rural young people are therefore fundamental pre-conditions to stability in the region.