Given the myriad issues confronting the Sahel, the Peace and Security Council (PSC) endorsed the African Union (AU) 2014 Sahel strategy at its 449th meeting in Addis Ababa on 11 August 2014. The council described the strategy as a ‘framework for a holistic and coordinated action’. Hopes were high in policy circles that the region’s often-cited lack of coordination and coherent strategy for dealing with insecurity would be tackled and regional and international engagements enhanced. Nine years later, however, the situation continues to deteriorate as the causes evolve. These include state marginalisation of groups, terrorism, intra- and inter-community rivalries, organised crime and violent extremism.